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A boiler is a closed vessel where water or other fluid is heated. The fluid does not boil. (In THE UNITED STATES, the term "furnace" is generally used if the reason is not to boil the liquid.) The heated or vaporized liquid exits the boiler for use in various processes or heating applications,[1][2] including drinking water heating, central heating, boiler-based power generation, cooking food, and sanitation.

Materials
The pressure vessel of a boiler is usually made of steel (or alloy steel), or of wrought iron historically. Stainless steel, especially of the austenitic types, is not used in wetted elements of boilers credited to corrosion and stress corrosion cracking.[3] However, ferritic stainless steel is often found in superheater sections that won't be exposed to boiling drinking water, and electrically heated stainless steel shell boilers are allowed under the European "Pressure Equipment Directive" for creation of steam for sterilizers and disinfectors.[4]
[url=https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boiler]https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boiler[/url]
In live steam models, copper or brass is often used since it is easier fabricated in smaller size boilers. Historically, copper was often used for fireboxes (particularly for steam locomotives), due to its better formability and higher thermal conductivity; however, in newer times, the high price of copper often makes this an uneconomic choice and cheaper substitutes (such as metal) are used instead.

For a lot of the Victorian "age of steam", the only materials used for boilermaking was the best grade of wrought iron, with set up by rivetting. This iron was obtained from specialist ironworks, such as at Cleator Moor (UK), observed for the high quality of their rolled plate and its suitability for high-reliability use in critical applications, such as high-pressure boilers. In the 20th century, design practice instead relocated towards the use of steel, which is stronger and cheaper, with welded building, which is quicker and requires less labour. It ought to be mentioned, however, that wrought iron boilers corrode far slower than their modern-day steel counterparts, and are less susceptible to localized pitting and stress-corrosion. This makes the longevity of older wrought-iron boilers far superior to those of welded metal boilers.

Cast iron may be used for the heating vessel of local drinking water heaters. Although such heaters are usually termed "boilers" in some countries, their purpose is to create hot water usually, not steam, and so they run at low pressure and stay away from boiling. The brittleness of cast iron helps it be impractical for high-pressure steam boilers.
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Energy
The foundation of heat for a boiler is combustion of some of several fuels, such as wood, coal, oil, or gas. Electric vapor boilers use resistance- or immersion-type heating elements. Nuclear fission is also used as a heat source for producing steam, either straight (BWR) or, in most cases, in specialised high temperature exchangers called "steam generators" (PWR). High temperature recovery vapor generators (HRSGs) use heat rejected from other processes such as gas turbine.

Boiler efficiency
there are two methods to measure the boiler efficiency 1) direct method 2) indirect method

Direct method -immediate method of boiler efficiency test is more functional or more common

boiler efficiency =Q*((Hg-Hf)/q)*(GCV *100 ) Q =Total vapor movement Hg= Enthalpy of saturated vapor in k cal/kg Hf =Enthalpy of give food to drinking water in kcal/kg q= quantity of energy use in kg/hr GCV =gross calorific value in kcal/kg like family pet coke (8200 kcal/KG)

indirect method -to gauge the boiler efficiency in indirect method, we are in need of a subsequent parameter like

Ultimate analysis of fuel (H2,S2,S,C moisture constraint, ash constraint)
percentage of O2 or CO2 at flue gas
flue gas temperature at outlet
ambient temperature in deg c and humidity of air in kg/kg
GCV of gasoline in kcal/kg
ash percentage in combustible fuel
GCV of ash in kcal/kg
Configurations
Boilers can be classified in to the following configurations:

Container boiler or Haycock boiler/Haystack boiler: a primitive "kettle" where a fireplace heats a partially filled drinking water box from below. 18th century Haycock boilers produced and stored large amounts of very low-pressure vapor generally, hardly above that of the atmosphere often. These could burn off wood or frequently, coal. Efficiency was suprisingly low.
Flued boiler with one or two large flues-an early type or forerunner of fire-tube boiler.

Diagram of the fire-tube boiler
Fire-tube boiler: Here, water partially fills a boiler barrel with a small volume remaining above to support the steam (vapor space). This is the kind of boiler used in all steam locomotives nearly. Heat source is inside a furnace or firebox that needs to be held completely surrounded by the water in order to keep up the heat range of the heating surface below the boiling point. The furnace can be situated at one end of the fire-tube which lengthens the path of the hot gases, thus augmenting the heating system surface which may be further increased by making the gases reverse direction through another parallel tube or a bundle of multiple pipes (two-pass or come back flue boiler); additionally the gases may be studied along the sides and then under the boiler through flues (3-move boiler). In case of a locomotive-type boiler, a boiler barrel stretches from the firebox and the hot gases go through a bundle of fire tubes inside the barrel which greatly escalates the heating system surface compared to a single tube and further improves heat transfer. Fire-tube boilers have a comparatively low rate of steam production usually, but high steam storage capacity. Fire-tube boilers burn solid fuels mainly, but are readily adaptable to those of the gas or water variety.

Diagram of the water-tube boiler.
Water-tube boiler: In this kind, pipes filled with water are arranged in the furnace in several possible configurations. Usually the drinking water tubes connect large drums, the lower ones formulated with drinking water and top of the ones vapor and drinking water; in other situations, such as a mono-tube boiler, drinking water is circulated with a pump through a succession of coils. This kind generally provides high steam creation rates, but less storage space capacity than the above. Water tube boilers can be designed to exploit any temperature source and tend to be preferred in high-pressure applications because the high-pressure drinking water/vapor is included within small size pipes which can withstand the pressure with a thinner wall structure.
Flash boiler: A flash boiler is a specialized kind of water-tube boiler in which tubes are close together and water is pumped through them. A flash boiler differs from the type of mono-tube steam generator in which the tube is permanently filled up with water. In a flash boiler, the pipe is kept so hot that water feed is quickly flashed into vapor and superheated. Flash boilers had some use in automobiles in the 19th century and this use continued into the early 20th century. .

1950s design vapor locomotive boiler, from a Victorian Railways J class
Fire-tube boiler with Water-tube firebox. Sometimes both above types have been combined in the following manner: the firebox consists of an set up of water tubes, called thermic siphons. The gases go through a typical firetube boiler then. Water-tube fireboxes were installed in many Hungarian locomotives,[citation needed] but have met with little success in other countries.
Sectional boiler. In a cast iron sectional boiler, sometimes called a "pork chop boiler" the water is included inside cast iron sections.[citation needed] These sections are assembled on site to create the finished boiler.
Safety
See also: Boiler explosion
To define and secure boilers safely, some professional specialized organizations like the American Society of Mechanical Technicians (ASME) develop specifications and regulation codes. For example, the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code is a standard providing a wide range of rules and directives to ensure compliance of the boilers and other pressure vessels with security, security and design standards.[5]

Historically, boilers were a way to obtain many serious injuries and property destruction as a consequence to badly understood engineering principles. Thin and brittle steel shells can rupture, while badly welded or riveted seams could start, leading to a violent eruption of the pressurized vapor. When drinking water is changed into vapor it expands to over 1,000 times its original volume and travels down steam pipes at over 100 kilometres per hour. Because of this, vapor is a superb way of moving energy and temperature around a niche site from a central boiler house to where it is needed, but with no right boiler feed water treatment, a steam-raising place will suffer from scale development and corrosion. At best, this increases energy costs and can lead to poor quality vapor, reduced efficiency, shorter plant life and unreliable operation. At worst, it can lead to catastrophic failing and loss of life. Collapsed or dislodged boiler tubes can also aerosol scalding-hot steam and smoke out of the air intake and firing chute, injuring the firemen who insert the coal into the fire chamber. Extremely large boilers providing a huge selection of horsepower to use factories can potentially demolish entire buildings.[6]

A boiler which has a loss of feed water and it is permitted to boil dry can be hugely dangerous. If nourish water is then sent in to the bare boiler, the small cascade of incoming water instantly boils on connection with the superheated metal shell and leads to a violent explosion that cannot be managed even by safety steam valves. Draining of the boiler can also happen if a leak occurs in the vapor supply lines that is bigger than the make-up drinking water source could replace. The Hartford Loop was created in 1919 by the Hartford Vapor Boiler and INSURANCE PROVIDER as a strategy to help prevent this problem from taking place, and therefore reduce their insurance promises.[7][8]

Superheated steam boiler

A superheated boiler on a steam locomotive.
Main article: Superheater
Most boilers produce steam to be utilized at saturation temp; that is, saturated steam. Superheated vapor boilers vaporize the water and then further warmth the vapor in a superheater. This provides steam at higher temp, but can reduce the overall thermal efficiency of the vapor generating herb because the higher vapor temperature requires a higher flue gas exhaust temperature.[citation needed] There are several ways to circumvent this issue, by providing an economizer that heats the feed water typically, a combustion air heating unit in the hot flue gas exhaust path, or both. There are benefits to superheated vapor that may, and often will, increase overall efficiency of both steam generation and its own utilization: gains in input temperatures to a turbine should outweigh any cost in additional boiler problem and expense. There could be useful restrictions in using damp steam also, as entrained condensation droplets will damage turbine blades.

Superheated steam presents unique safety concerns because, if any operational system component fails and allows steam to flee, the ruthless and temperature can cause serious, instantaneous harm to anyone in its path. Since the escaping steam will initially be completely superheated vapor, detection can be difficult, although the extreme heat and sound from such a leak clearly indicates its presence.

Superheater procedure is similar to that of the coils on an fresh air conditioning unit, although for a different purpose. The steam piping is directed through the flue gas path in the boiler furnace. The heat in this field is between 1 typically,300 and 1,600 °C (2,372 and 2,912 °F). Some superheaters are radiant type; that is, they absorb heat by rays. Others are convection type, absorbing temperature from a liquid. Some are a mixture of both types. Through either method, the extreme heat in the flue gas path will heat the superheater steam piping and the steam within also. While the temp of the vapor in the superheater goes up, the pressure of the steam does not and the pressure remains exactly like that of the boiler.[9] Virtually all steam superheater system designs remove droplets entrained in the steam to avoid damage to the turbine blading and associated piping.

Supercritical steam generator

Boiler for a charged power seed.
Main article: Supercritical steam generator
Supercritical steam generators are generally used for the production of electric power. They operate at supercritical pressure. As opposed to a "subcritical boiler", a supercritical vapor generator operates at such a high pressure (over 3,200 psi or 22 MPa) that the physical turbulence that characterizes boiling ceases that occurs; the fluid is neither liquid nor gas but a super-critical liquid. There is no era of steam bubbles within water, because the pressure is above the critical pressure point at which steam bubbles can develop. As the liquid expands through the turbine levels, its thermodynamic state drops below the critical point as it does work turning the turbine which changes the electrical generator that power is ultimately extracted. The liquid at that point may be a mix of vapor and liquid droplets as it passes into the condenser. This leads to less fuel use and for that reason less greenhouse gas production slightly. The term "boiler" should not be used for a supercritical pressure vapor generator, as no "boiling" occurs in this product.
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Accessories
Boiler fittings and accessories
Pressuretrols to control the vapor pressure in the boiler. Boilers generally have two or three 3 pressuretrols: a manual-reset pressuretrol, which functions as a protection by setting top of the limit of vapor pressure, the working pressuretrol, which handles when the boiler fires to keep up pressure, and for boilers outfitted with a modulating burner, a modulating pressuretrol which handles the quantity of fire.
Security valve: It can be used to alleviate pressure and prevent possible explosion of the boiler.
Water level indicators: They show the operator the amount of liquid in the boiler, also called a sight glass, water gauge or water column.
Bottom blowdown valves: They provide a way for removing solid particulates that condense and lay on underneath of a boiler. As the name indicates, this valve is located directly on the bottom of the boiler usually, and is sometimes opened to use the pressure in the boiler to press these particulates out.
Continuous blowdown valve: This enables a small quantity of water to escape continuously. Its purpose is to prevent water in the boiler becoming saturated with dissolved salts. Saturation would lead to foaming and cause drinking water droplets to be transported over with the vapor - a disorder known as priming. Blowdown is often used to monitor the chemistry of the boiler drinking water also.
Trycock: a kind of valve that is often use to manually check a water level in a container. Mostly entirely on a drinking water boiler.
Flash tank: High-pressure blowdown enters this vessel where the vapor can 'flash' safely and be used in a low-pressure system or be vented to atmosphere while the ambient pressure blowdown flows to drain.
Automatic blowdown/constant heat recovery system: This system allows the boiler to blowdown only when makeup water is moving to the boiler, thereby transferring the maximum amount of heat possible from the blowdown to the makeup water. No flash tank is normally needed as the blowdown discharged is close to the heat range of the make-up water.
Hand openings: They may be metal plates installed in openings in "header" to allow for inspections & installing pipes and inspection of inner surfaces.
Steam drum internals, some display screen, scrubber & cans (cyclone separators).
Low-water cutoff: It really is a mechanical means (usually a float switch) that is used to turn off the burner or shut off energy to the boiler to avoid it from jogging once the water moves below a certain point. If a boiler is "dry-fired" (burned without water in it) it can cause rupture or catastrophic failing.
Surface blowdown collection: It offers a means for removing foam or other light-weight non-condensible chemicals that have a tendency to float together with the water inside the boiler.
Circulating pump: It really is designed to circulate drinking water back again to the boiler after they have expelled some of its heat.
Feedwater check valve or clack valve: A non-return stop valve in the feedwater line. This can be installed to the medial side of the boiler, below water level just, or to the very best of the boiler.[10]
Top feed: With this design for feedwater injection, the water is fed to the top of the boiler. This can reduce boiler fatigue caused by thermal stress. By spraying the feedwater over a series of trays water is quickly heated and this can reduce limescale.
Desuperheater pipes or bundles: A series of pipes or bundles of tubes in water drum or the vapor drum made to cool superheated vapor, in order to provide auxiliary equipment that does not need, or may be damaged by, dry steam.
Chemical substance injection line: A connection to add chemicals for controlling feedwater pH.
Steam accessories
Main steam stop valve:
Steam traps:
Main steam stop/check valve: It is used on multiple boiler installations.
Combustion accessories
Gasoline oil system:gas oil heaters
Gas system:
Coal system:
Soot blower
Other essential items
Pressure gauges:
Feed pumps:
Fusible plug:
Inspectors test pressure gauge attachment:
Name plate:
Registration plate:

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